On Tuesday, Congress began debating the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) for the first time since the current iteration of the law, also known as No Child Left Behind, was enacted in 2002. Both the House and Senate have created versions of the bill that give states more power when it comes to school accountability. The differences between the two bills, however, are significant.

The House bill, known as the Student Success Act, would extend state power, requiring them to intervene when Title I schools are low-performing but does not dictate how schools should fix the problem. The House version also includes “Title I portability,” which allows federal funds to follow a student when they transfer to a different school. In addition, the House bill would prevent the U.S. Secretary of Education from imposing any set of academic standards, such as the Common Core, in language arts, math, and science.

The Senate version, on the other hand, holds states accountable for providing access to effective teachers for disadvantaged students. Senate Democrats argue that “Title I portability” should be left off the ESEA rewrite because it would take funds away from the neediest schools.

Although the Senate version has garnered more bipartisan support, President Obama has stopped short of issuing a veto threat to the bill as he did for the House version, but says accountability changes need to be made before he will sign it.